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RESTORE has a team of over 20 researchers working on a variety of leading projects from detailed studies of fundamental contaminant transport and remediation processes through to the application of remedial technologies in practice. Experimental research is largely conducted in the RESTORE laboratories, while numerical modelling work is carried out on a variety of machines from desktop workstations through to high performance parallel computing facilities.

A selection of ongoing projects are described below.

Project Title Funding RESTORE Investigators Collaborators Key Personnel
In-Situ Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) NSERC Strategic Grant: $365K Gerhard and O’Carroll
1 PDF Rory Hadden, 3 MESc Laura Kinsman Tanzeer Hasan Marco Zanoni
STAR is an innovative NAPL remediation technology based on the principle of self-sustaining smouldering combustion. STAR has been proven at the bench and prototype field scales for ex-situ remediation applications by this research group. This project focuses on developing STAR for in-situ remediation of NAPL source zones. Overview of STAR technology here.
Quantification of groundwater contribution to fecal and nutrient pollution at beaches of the Great Lakes NSERC Strategic Grant ($540,000)
Robinson and O’Carroll Dr. Van Capellen (University of Waterloo), Drs. Edge and Crowe (Environment Canada) 2 PDF, 3 PhD
This interdisciplinary collaborative project will investigate the role groundwater plays in the degrading water quality at beaches of the Great Lakes. Field studies on several beaches of the Great Lakes will be undertaken in combination with laboratory investigations, computer modeling and the development of simple decision support tools. The scientific understanding and tools developed are needed by government policy makers and other stakeholders to guide water quality programs and policy aimed at improving human health and reducing economic loss at the beaches.
Contribution of groundwater to the water quality in dynamic lake environments Early Research Award ($150,000) Robinson
2 PhD
Advanced numerical computer models will be developed to evaluate the effect of lake hydraulic processes (e.g., waves, sieches, lake level variations) on the transport and fate of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients in coastal aquifers and their discharge to near-shore lake waters.
Development and validation of a model to forecast lead levels in municipal drinking water Canadian Water Network, Municipal Water Consortium ($125,000) Herrera and Robinson Dr. Basu (Carleton University, City of London, City of Toronto, City of Ottawa
2 PhD, 1 MESc Daoping Guo
An advanced geochemical water quality model will be developed to predict the effect of water quality parameters on dissolved lead concentrations in water distribution systems. This project involves model development and validation but also significant state-of-the-art laboratory and field testing to evaluate lead dissolution rates and the controlling factors.
Feasibility of aquifer storage and recovery as a water supply alternative in Bangladesh Western International Research Award ($3,700) Robinson Dr. Kazi Matin (Dhaka University)
1 MESc Jessica Barker
This project examines the feasibility of small-scale managed aquifer recharge schemes as a low-cost disaster resilient technology for water supply to communities in south-western Bangladesh.
Impacts of green roofs on storm water management and urban climate NSERC
Strategic Grant ($522,459)
O’Carroll and Robinson Drs. Smart and Voogt (Western University), Dr. Lundholm (St Mary’s University), Dr. Hay (University of Calgary), Live Roof Ontario 1 PDF Dr. Maja Staniec 1 PhD Bilal Al-Bataia 1 MESc Ginevra Perelli
This project with evaluate the performance and optimize green roof systems to mitigate against the effects of urbanization. Three state-of-the-art green roof experimental arrays will be established in London, Halifax and Calgary to quantify the energy and water balances of green roofs in three distinct Canadian climates. Advanced numerical computer models will also be developed to optimize green roof design.
Groundwater-Coastal Water Interactions
Leaders Opportunity Fund ($445,964) Robinson
State-of-the-art field and laboratory equipment for investigating physical and chemical processes occurring at the groundwater-coastal water interface.
Best in Science: Assessing the Risk of Organic Contaminants at Off-Site Receptors  MOE: $127,500 Gerhard and O’Carroll
1 PhD, 1 PDF
The proposed study will evaluate the fate, transport and transformation of industrial contaminants at the scale of a site versus a community, and assess the implications for risk-based decision-making.
Development of Nanometals for Source Zone Remediation NSERC Strategic Grant: $407K O’Carroll and Herrera Sleep, U. Toronto
Acosta, U. Toronto
Dow Chemical & AMEC Geomatrix Consultants Inc.

2 PDF, 3 PhD, 4 MESc
The development of reactive nanometals for the remediation of source zone chlorinated solvents with a specific focus on clay permeable media systems.
Ex Situ STAR Remediation: Field Demonstrations Scottish Enterprise: 640K Gerhard Torero, U. Edinburgh PDF Christine Switzer
PDF Pedro Rizkala
This project is developing the STAR technology as a proven ex situ remediation option for coal tars and other recalcitrant hydrocarbons. Studies at intermediate and prototype field scales with a number of manufactured and historical soils contaminated with tars and petrochemicals have demonstrated the technical effectiveness and cost efficiency of STAR.
Real World Soil-NAPL Wettability: Tools for Site Assessment and Implications for Site Remediation NSERC Strategic Grant: 200K O’Carroll and Gerhard Van Geel, Carleton U
Geosyntec Consultants Ltd.
AMEC Geomatrix Consultants Inc.Interra
MESc Stephanie Drake
MESc Ian Molnar
3 UGs
This project has three main objectives: the development of an analytical tool for wettability characterization at brownfield sites, the validation of a robust constitutive model for field NAPL-soil systems, and an assessment of the impacts of wettability on remediation technologies for NAPL-wet soils.
Delivery of Reactive Nanometals for Source Zone Remediation Ontario Centres of Excellence and Dow Chemical: 400K O’Carroll Sleep, U. Toronto
City of London
City of Ottawa
Geosyntec Consultants Ltd.
M.E.Sc Christopher Kocur
PDF Mai Sakulchaicharoen
The development of the delivery systems of reactive nanometals for remediating chlorinated solvent source zones.
Discharge of industrial groundwater contaminants to the Great Lakes Regional Water Supply: $75K Robinson and O’Carroll   1 M.E.Sc - Jacky Lee
This project aims to evaluate the potential discharge of contaminants from an industrial site to nearshore surface waters. This will be achieved through a combination of field investigations and the development of a numerical groundwater-surface water model. This research is been conducted for Source Water Protection Planning.
Impact of dynamic groundwater-coastal water interaction NSERC Discovery Grants: $100K Robinson   1 M.E.Sc - Nawrin Anwar
The importance of groundwater for delivering pollutants to coastal waters and the impact of water level fluctuations (e.g., tides, waves, seasonal variations) on the fate and transport of pollutants.
Mechanistic understanding of processes controlling the state of beaches on the Great Lakes. Western Academic Development Fund (Small Grant): $10,000 Robinson    
Identification and quantification of the impact of human and environmental stressors on the physical condition and water quality at beaches of the Great Lakes.
Mobility Of Engineered Nanoparticles In The Subsurface  Ontario Ministry of the Environment Best in Science: $150K O'Carroll   MESc Erin Cullen
MESc Nikolai Mattison
Determination of the fate of engineered nanoparticles, including carbon nanotubes, in the subsurface.
Deterministic Synthesis and Site Specific Functionalization of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Application on the Synthesis of Functional Materials NSERC Discovery Grant: 100K Herrera   1 M.E.Sc
1 Ph.D.
The synthesis, characterization and functionalization of carbon nanotube –based nanoparticles for use in functional devices.
Upscaling and Optimizing Emerging Technologies for Geoenvironmental Restoration NSERC Discovery Grant: 125K Gerhard   1 PhD Chris Power
Experiments and modelling to further develop remediation technologies and techniques for monitoring the progress of remediaton. One current project involves developing electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar as non-invasive techniques for mapping the progress of DNAPL source zone remediation.
Characterization and Remediation of Complex Subsurface Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Wastes
Discovery Grant:
$110 K
  2 M.E.Sc
The characterization and remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid wastes from field sites in porous media systems.
Development of a model to forecast lead levels in water distribution systems Walkerton Clean Water Centre: 100K Herrera, O’Carroll, Gerhard
City of London
3 M.E.Sc
Integrated experiments and modelling to improve our ability to forecast lead levels present in drinking water as result of lead pipe corrosion.
Development of Nanomaterials and Hot Water Flooding for Enhanced Groundwater Remediation Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation: 150K O’Carroll   1 M.E.Sc
1 Ph.D.
Reactive nanometals for NAPL remediation and the development of hot water flushing for the removal of viscous NAPLs from brownfield sites.
Reactive nanometals for complex chlorinated hydrocarbon/metal waste groundwater cleanup Private Foundation Gift: 100K O’Carroll   M.E.Sc. Ahmed Chowdhury
PDF Hardiljeet Boparai
The development of reactive nanometals for complex waste mixtures.
Process Modelling for Source Area BioREmediation (SABRE) Project UK Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council: 375K Gerhard Barry, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne also British Geological Survey, U. Sheffield, U. Birmingham, U. Toronto, Stanford U., and GE, Dupont, Shell, ICI, Honeywell, Geosyntec, Terra Systems, Archon Environmental, Acetate Products, and US EPA, UK EA PDF Irina Kouznetsova
SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) project is focused on determining if enhanced anaerobic bioremediation can result in effective and quantifiable treatment of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. This 5-year, $5.7 million research and development project began in October 2004. The process modelling team, led by PIs Gerhard and Barry, is developing tools to increase understanding of the system behavior and investigate field system sensitivity to site conditions and design variables.
Combustion of Hazardous Liquids in Porous Media UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council: 240K Gerhard Torero, U. Edinburgh PhD Paolo Pironi
This project examines the theoretical and reaction kinetics underpinnings of the innovative STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) technology. Utilizing detailed laboratory experiments and thermodynamic modelling, this research has demonstrated the new phenomenon of lquid smouldering combustion in porous media.
Feasibility Study of In Situ STAR Technology Ontario Centres of Excellence INTERACT: 13.5K Gerhard Geosyntec Consultants Ltd  
This collaboration focuses on exploring the market and feasibility of commercializing and deploying the new STAR remediation technology in the North American marketplace.
Development and application of a discrete fracture reactive transport numerical model US Dept. of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program: 125K Gerhard B.H. Kueper, Queen’s university

Geosyntec Consultants Ltd
PhD TiWee Pang
This project involves expanding the DNAPL3D-RX multiphase numerical model to fractured rock domains and simulating the effectiveness of chemical oxidation, surfactant flushing, and bioremediation in limestone, shale, granite, and sandstone scenarios. It is part of a larger ESTCP project focused on developing a Screening Tool for source zone remediation technologies in a variety of typical subsurface environments.