Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringWestern Engineering

Publications

Books

  1. Fang, Z., C. Xu (Eds.), Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications in Biorefineries, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, June 2014

Chapters in Books

  1. Rahman MS, Xu C, Jiang Z-H, Qin W*. Value-added Utilization of Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production. In: Advances in Enzymatic and Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels. Ed. R. De Vooght-Johnson. Future Science Group, London, UK, 2014 (In press).

  2. Mosuli D, Barghi S*, Fang Z, Xu C*. Techno-economic analysis of renewable hydrogen production via SCWG of biomass using glucose as a model compound. In: Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries. Eds. Z. Fang and C. Xu. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2014. pp. 445-471.

  3. Tushar M, Dutta A*, Xu C*. Effects of reactor types, operating conditions and challenges for SCWG of real wet biomass. In: Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries. Eds. Z. Fang and C. Xu. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2014. pp. 207-228.

  4. Behnia I, Yuan Z, Charpentier P*, Xu C*. Production of CH4 from biomass via supercritical water gasification. In: Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries. Eds. Z. Fang and C. Xu. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2014. pp. 323-341.

  5. Xu C*, Shao Y, Yuan Z, Cheng S, Feng S, Nazari L, Tymchyshy M. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass in hot-compressed water, alcohols and alcohol-water co-solvents for bio-crude production. In: Applications of Hydrothermal Reactions to Biomass Conversion. Ed. F. Jin. Springe--Verlag, Berlin, 2013 (in press).

  6. Xu C*, Liao B, Shi W. Organosolv Pre-treatment of Pine Sawdust for Bio-ethanol Production. In: Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries, Ed. Zhen Fang. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, June 2012. pp. 435-457

  7. Tian X, Fang Z*, Xu C. Status and perspective of organic solvent based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic saccharification. In: Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries, Ed. Zhen Fang. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, June 2012. pp. 309-337.

  8. Xu C*, Cheng S, Yuan Z, Leitch M, Anderson M. Production of Bio-Phenols and Bio-based Phenolic Resins from Lignin and lignocellulosic biomass. In: Lignin: Properties and Applications in Biotechnology and Bioenergy, Ed. Ryan J. Paterson, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 2011. pp. 183-210.

  9. Xu C*, Hurley S. Catalytic Gasification of Biomass for the Production of Syngas with Reduced Tar Formation. In: Gasification: Chemistry, Processes and Applications, Ed. Michael D. Baker, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 2011. pp. 253-272

  10. Xu C*, Lancaster J. Treatment of Secondary Pulp and Paper Sludge for Energy Recovery.  In: Energy Recovery, Eds. Edgard DuBois and Arthur Nercier, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 2009. pp. 187-212.

Papers in Peer-Reviewed Journals(with complete title of journal)

  1. Mahmood N, Yuan Z, Schmidt J, Xu C*, 2014. PRODUCTION OF POLYOLS VIA DIRECT HYDROLYSIS OF ­­KRAFT LIGNIN: OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS. J-FOR, In press.

  2. Huang S, Mahmood N, Tymchyshyn M, Yuan Z, Xu C*, 2014. Reductive De-polymerization of Kraft Lignin for Chemicals and Fuels using Formic Acid as an In-situ Hydrogen Source. Bioresource Technology 171 (2014) 95–102.

  3. Yuan Z, Zhang Y, Xu C*, 2014. Synthesis and thermomechanical property study of Novolac phenol-hydroxymethyl furfural (PHMF) resin. RSC Adv. 4: 31829–31835.

  4. Ferdosian F, Yuan Z, Anderson M, Xu C*, 2014. Synthesis of lignin-based epoxy resins: optimization of reaction parameters using response surface methodology. RSC Adv. 4: 31745–31753

  5. Zhang L, Xu C*, Champagne P, Mabee W, 2014. Overview of current biological and thermo-chemical treatment technologies for sustainable sludge management. Waste Management & Research. DOI: 10.1177/0734242X14538303 

  6. Nanda, MR, Yuan Z, Qin W, Poirier MA, Xu C*, 2014. Purification of Crude Glycerol using Acidification: Effects of Acid Types and Product Characterization. Austin J Chem Eng. 1(1): 1-7.

  7. Shirani, M., H.S. Ghaziaskar*, C. Xu. 2014. Optimization of glycerol ketalization to produce solketal as biodiesel additive in a continuous reactor with subcritical acetone using Purolite® PD206 as catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology 124: 206-211.

  8. Reyhanitash, E., M. Tymchyshyn, Z. Yuan, K. Albion, G. van Rossum*, C.Xu*. 2014. Upgrading fast pyrolysis oil via hydrodeoxygenation and thermal treatment: effects of catalytic glycerol pretreatment. Energy Fuels 28 (2), pp 1132–1138.

  9. Nanda, M., Z. Yuan, W. Qin, H. Ghaziaskar, M.-A. Poirier, C. Xu*. 2014. Catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive in a continuous flow reactor: process optimization. Fuel 128: 113-119.

  10. Nanda, M., Z. Yuan, W. Qin, H. Ghaziaskar, M.-A. Poirier, C. Xu*. 2014. A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: catalyst screening. Applied Energy 123: 75–81.

  11. Zhang, Y., M. Chen, Z. Yuan, C. Xu*. 2014. Kinetics and Mechanism of Formaldehyde-free Phenol-glucose Novolac Resin Cured with an Epoxy. IJCRE 12(1): 1–8.

  12. Nanda, M., Z. Yuan, W. Qin, H. Ghaziaskar, M.-A. Poirier, C. Xu*. 2014. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of a catalytic process to convert glycerol into solketal as an oxygenated fuel additive. Fuel 117: 470–477.

  13. Mahmood N, Yuan Z, Schmidt J, Xu C*, 2013. ­­VALORIZATION OF HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN FOR POLYOLS AND RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAM. J-FOR 3 (5): 26-31.

  14. Feng, S., S. Cheng, Z. Yuan, M. Leitch, C. Xu*. 2013. Valorization of bark for chemicals and materials: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 26: 560–578.

  15. Feng, S., Z. Yuan, M. Leitch, C. Xu*. 2013. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barks into bio-crude – Effects of species and ash content/composition. Fuel 116: 214–220

  16. Tymchyshyn, M., Z. Yuan, C. Xu*. 2013. Direct Conversion of Glycerol into Bio-oil via Hydrotreatment Using Supported Metal Catalysts. Fuel 112: 193–202.

  17. Mahmood, N., Z. Yuan, J. Schmidt, C. Xu*. 2013. Production of polyols via direct hydrolysis of kraft lignin: Effect of process parameters. Bioresource Technology 139: 13–20.

  18. Ghaziaskar, H., C. Xu*. 2013. One-step continuous process for the production of 1-butanol and 1-hexanol by catalytic conversion of bio-ethanol at its sub-/supercritical state. RSC Adv. 3: 4271–4280.

  19. Cheng, S., Z. Yuan, M. Leitch, M. Anderson, C. Xu*. 2013. Highly efficient de-polymerization of organosolv lignin using a catalytic hydrothermal process and production of phenolic resins/adhesives with the depolymerized lignin as a substitute for phenol at a high substitution ratio. Industrial Crops and Products 44: 315-322.

  20. Tymchyshyn, M., Z. Yuan, C. Xu*. 2013. Reforming of Glycerol into Bio-crude: A Parametric Study. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering 11: 1–13.

  21. Gao,W. J.,  M. N. Han, X. Qu, C. Xu and B.Q. Liao*. 2013. Characteristics of Wastewater and Mixed Liquor and Their Role in Membrane Fouling. Bioresource Technology 128: 207-214.

  22. Shao, Y., J. Wang, F. Preto, J. Zhu and C. Xu*. 2012. Ash Deposition in Biomass Combustion or Co-firing for Power/Heat Generation. Energies5(12): 5171-5189.

  23. Ferdosian, F. Z. Yuan, M. Anderson, C. Xu*. ­­­­­­2012. Chemically Modified Lignin through Epoxidation and Its Thermal Properties. Journal of Science & Technology for Forest Products and Processes 2(4): 11-15.

  24. Badour, C., A. Gilbert*, C. Xu*, H. Li, Y. Shao, G. Tourigny, F. Preto, 2012. Combustion and Air Emissions from Co-firing a Woody Biomass, a Canadian Peat and a Canadian Lignite Coal in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor. CJChE 90: 1170-1177.

  25. Xu, C.*, J. Donald, 2012. Upgrading peat to gas and liquid fuels in supercritical water. Fuel 102:16–25.    

  26. Wang, M. *, L. Yang, C. Yu, C. Xu, 2012. Liquid poly(silylacetylene)siloxane resin as a novel precursor of silicon carbide and silicon oxycarbide ceramics. Ceramics International 38: 2449–2454.

  27. Cheng, S., C. Wilks, Z. Yuan, M. Leitch, C. Xu*, 2012. Hydrothermal de-polymerization of alkali lignin to bio-phenols in the medium of sub/supercritical cosolvent of water and ethanol. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 97: 839-848.

  28. Zhang, L., C. Xu*, P. Champagne*, 2012. Activity and stability of a novel Ru modified Ni catalyst for hydrogen generation by supercritical water gasification of glucose. Fuel 96: 541-545.

  29. Guo, F., Z. Fang*, C. Xu, R.L. Smith Jr., 2012. Solid Acid Mediated Biomass Hydrolysis for Biofuels, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 38: 672-690.

  30. Shao, Y., C. Xu,* J. Zhu, F. Preto, J. Wang, G. Tourigny, C. Badour, H. Li. 2012. Ash and Chlorine Deposition during Co-combustion of Lignite and a Chlorine-Rich Canadian Peat in a Fluidized Bed - Effects of Blending Ratio, Moisture Content and Sulfur Addition. Fuel 95: 25-34.

  31. Hurley, S., C. Xu*, F. Preto, Y. Shao, H. Li, G. Tourigny. 2012. Catalytic gasification of woody biomass in an air-blown fluidized-bed reactor using Canadian limonite iron ore as the bed material. Fuel 95: 170-176.

  32. Cheng, S., Z. Yuan, M. Anderson, M. Leitch, C. Xu*. 2012. Synthesis of bio-based phenolic resins/adhesives using methylolated wood-derived bio-oil. J. Applied Polymer Science 126: E431-E441

  33. Zhang, L., P. Champagne, C. Xu*. 2011. Supercritical water gasification of aqueous by-product from biomass hydrothermal liquefaction with novel Ru modified Ni catalysts. Bioresource Technology  102: 8279-8287

  34. Shao, Y., C. Xu,* J. Zhu, F. Preto, J. Wang, H. Li, C. Badour, 2011. Ash Deposition in Co-Firing Three-fuel Blends Consisting of Woody Biomass, Peat and Lignite in a Pilot-Scale Fluidized-bed Reactor. Energy Fuels 25: 2841–2849

  35. Yuan Z., S. Cheng, M Leitch, C. Xu*. 2011. Catalytic Conversion of Glucose to 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural Using Inexpensive Co-catalysts and Solvents. Carbohydrate Research 346(13): 2019-2023.

  36. Zhang, L., P. Champagne*, C. Xu*. 2011. Screening of Supported Transition Metal Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Glucose via Catalytic Supercritical Water Gasification. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 36: 9591-9601.

  37. Shao, Y., J. Wang*, C. Xu*, J. Zhu, F. Preto, G. Tourigny, C. Badour and H. Li, 2011: An experimental and modeling study of ash deposition behavior for co-firing peat with lignite. Applied Energy 88:  2635-2640.

  38. Donald, J., C. Xu*, Y. Ohtsuka, 2011. Effects of activation agents on pore development in activated carbons derived from a Canadian peat. Materials Letters 65: 744-747.

  39. Cheng, S., I. Dcruz, Z. Yuan, M. Wang, M. Anderson, M. Leitch, C. Xu*, 2011. Use of biocrude derived from woody biomass to substitute phenol at a high- substitution level for the production of biobased phenolic resol resins. J. Applied Polymer Science 121: 2743-2751.

  40. Zhang, L., P. Champagne*, C. Xu*, 2011. Bio-crude production from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and waste newspaper via co-liquefaction in hot-compressed water. Energy, 36: 2142-2150.

  41. Li, H., S. Hurley, C. Xu*, 2011. Liquefactions of peat to bio-crude in supercritical water with a novel iron catalyst. Fuel, 90: 412-420.

  42. Shao, Y., C. Xu,* J. Zhu, F. Preto, J. Wang, G. Tourigny, C. Badour, H. Li, 2010. Ash deposition during co-firing biomass and coal in a fluidized bed. Energy Fuels, 24: 4681–4688.

  43. Yuan, Z., S. Cheng, M. Leitch, C. Xu*, 2010. Hydrolytic degradation of alkaline lignin in hot-compressed water and ethanol. Bioresource Technology, 101: 9308–9313.

  44. Hurley, S., H. Li, C. Xu,* 2010. Effects of Impregnated Metal Ions on Biomass Gasification in CO2/Air Media. Bioresource Technology, 101: 9301–9307.

  45. Xu, C.*, J. Donald, E. Byambajav, Y. Ohtsuka, 2010. Recent advances in catalysts for hot gas removal of tar and NH3 from biomass gasification. Fuel, 89. 1784–1795.

  46. Wang, M., Z. Yuan, S. Cheng, M. Leitch, C. Xu*, 2010. Synthesis of novel phenol-glucose resins without using formaldehyde. J. Applied Polymer Science, 118: 1191–1197.

  47. Cheng, S., I. Dcruz, M. Wang, M. Leitch, C. Xu*, 2010. Highly Efficient Liquefaction of Woody Biomass in Hot-compressed Alcohol-Water Co-solvents. Energy Fuels, 24: 4659–4667.

  48. J. Donald, C. Xu*, H. Hashimoto, E. Byambajav, Y. Ohtsuka*, 2010. Novel carbon-based Ni/Fe catalysts derived from peat for hot gas ammonia decomposition in an inert helium atmosphere. Applied Catalysis A: General, 375: 124-133.

  49. Shui, H., Z. Cai, C. Xu*, 2010. Recent advances in direct coal liquefaction. Energies3, 155-170;

  50. Zhang, L., C. Xu, P. Champagne*, 2010. Overview of Recent Advances in Thermo-chemical Conversion of Biomass. Energy Conversion and Management, 51, 969-982.

  51. Tymchyshyn, M., C. Xu*, 2010. Liquefaction of biomass in hot-compressed water for the production of phenolic compounds. Bioresource Technology, 101, 2483-2490.

  52. Zhang, L., C. Xu*, P. Champagne, 2010. Energy recovery from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge by supercritical water treatment. Bioresource Technology, 101, 2713–2721.

  53. Xu, C.*, D. Cang, 2010.  Review of Low CO2 Emission Technologies for Iron & Steelmaking. Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, 17(3), 01-07.

  54. Wang, M., M. Leitch, C. Xu*, 2009. Synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resol resins using organosolv pine lignins. European Polymer Journal, 45, 3380–3388.

  55. Xu, C.*, H. Su, M. Ghosh, 2009.  Hydro-treating of Asphaltenes in Supercritical Toluene with MgO-Supported Fe, Ni, NiMo, and CoMo Catalysts. Energy Fuels, 23, 3645-3651.

  56. Xu, C.*, S. Hamilton, M. Ghosh, 2009.  Hydro-conversion of Athabasca vacuum tower bottoms in supercritical toluene with highly porous biomass-derived activated carbon and metal-carbon composite. Fuel, 88, 2097–2105.

  57. Wang, M., M. Leitch, C. Xu*, 2009.  Synthesis of phenolic resol resins using cornstalk-derived bio-oil produced by direct liquefaction in a hot-compressed phenol-water medium. Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry, 15, 870-875.

  58. Xu, C., H. Zhang, J. Zhu*, 2009. Improving fluidizability of cohesive particles by surface coating with flow conditioners. CJChE, 87: 403-414.

  59. Yang, Y., A. Gilbert, C. Xu*, 2009. Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-crude in Supercritical Hexane with Sulfided CoMo and CoMoP Catalysts Supported on MgO: A Model Compound Study using Phenol. Applied Catalysis A: General, 360, 242–249.

  60. Wang, M., C. Xu*, M. Leitch, 2009. Liquefaction of corn stalk for the production of phenol-formaldehyde resole resin. Bioresource Technology, 100, 2305-2307.

  61. Yang, Y., A. Gilbert, C. Xu*, 2009. Production of bio-crude from forestry waste by hydro-liquefaction in sub-/super-critical methanol. AIChE J., 55, 807-819.

  62. Xu, C., J. Zhu*, 2008. Prediction of minimum fluidization velocity for fine particles of various degrees of cohesiveness. Chem. Eng. Communications, 196: 4, 499 - 517.

  63. Xu, C.*, H. Su, D. Cang, 2008. Liquefaction of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) in hot-compressed phenol. BioResources, 3(2), 363-382.

  64. Xu, C.*, J. Lancaster, 2008. Conversion of secondary pulp/paper sludge to bio-oils by direct liquefaction in hot compressed or sub- and near-critical water. Water Research 42, 1571 – 1582.

  65. Xu, C.*, T. Etcheverry, 2008. Hydro-liquefaction of woody biomass in sub- and super-critical ethanol with iron-based catalysts. Fuel, 87, 335-345.

  66. Xu, C.*, N. Lad, 2007. Production of Heavy Oils with High Caloric Values by Direct Liquefaction of Woody Biomass in Sub/Near-critical Water. Energy Fuels, 22, 635-642.

  67. Xu, C.*, S. Hamilton, A. Mallik, M. Ghosh, 2007. Upgrading of Athabasca vacuum tower bottoms (VTB) in supercritical hydrocarbon solvents with activated carbon-supported metallic catalysts. Energy Fuels 21, 3490-3498.

  68. Xu, C., J. Zhu*, 2006. Effects of gas type and temperature on fine particle fluidization. China Particuology, 4 (3-4), 114-121.

  69. Xu, C., J. Zhu*, 2006. Parametric study of fine particle fluidization under mechanical vibration. Powder Technology, 161, 135-144.

  70. Xu, C., Y. Cheng, J. Zhu, 2006. Fluidization of fine particles in a sound field and identification of group C/A particles by using acoustic waves. Powder Technology, 161, 227-234.

  71. Xu, C., N. Tsubouchi, Y. Ohtsuka, 2005. Catalytic decomposition of ammonia with metal cations present naturally in low rank coals. Fuel, 84 (8-10), 1957-1967.

  72. Xu, C., J. Zhu, 2005. Experimental and numerical study on the agglomeration arising from fluidization of cohesive particles. Chem. Eng. Sci., 60 (23), 6529-6541.

  73. Xu, C., J. Zhu, 2004. One-step preparation of highly dispersed metal-supported catalysts by fluidized-bed MOCVD for Carbon Nanotube Synthesis. Nanotechnology, 15, 1671-1681.

  74. Tsubouchi, N., C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, 2004. Effect of alkaline earth metals on N2 formation during fixed bed pyrolysis of a low rank coal. Fuel Processing Technology, 85(8-10), 1039-1052.

  75. Ohtsuka, Y., C. Xu, D. Kong, N. Tsubouchi, 2004. Decomposition of ammonia with iron and calcium catalysts supported on coal chars. Fuel, 83(6), 685-692.

  76. Tsubouchi, N., C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, 2003. Carbon crystallization during high-temperature pyrolysis of coals and the enhancement by calcium.  Energy Fuels, 17(5), 1119-1125.

  77. Tsubouchi, N., M. Abe, C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, 2003. Nitrogen release from low rank coals during rapid pyrolysis with a drop tube reactor. Energy Fuels, 17(4), 940-945.

  78. Tsubouchi, N., Y. Ohshima, C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, 2001. Enhancement of N2 formation from the nitrogen in carbon and coal by calcium.  Energy Fuels, 15(1), 158-162.

  79. Xu, C., S. Wu, D. Cang, 2000. Possibility of reducing the formations of NOx and SO2 simultaneously during coal combustion. J. Univ. of Sci. Technol. Beijing (English Edition), 7(3), 165-169.

  80. Xu, C., S. Wu, D. Cang, 2000. Numerical modeling of NO formation during packed-bed combustion of coke granules. J. Univ. of Sci. Technol. Beijing (English Edition) 7(4), 261-268.

  81. Xu, C., N. Tsobouchi, 2000. Effect of coal minerals on NOx/N2O formation during coal combustion (a brief review in Japanese). Coal Utilization TechnologyInformation, 21(7), 12-13.

  82. Xu, C., N. Tsobouchi, 2000. Upgrading coals by selective agglomeration in a flow consecutor (a brief review in Japanese). Coal Utilization TechnologyInformation, 21(11), 8-10.

  83. Xu, C., S. Wu, D. Cang, Q. Shou, M. Li, Y. Deng, 1999. Catalytic performance of metallic oxides on reduction of NO by CO.  Huanjing Kexue (Environmental Science), 20(1), 30-32.

  84. Chen, X., H. Chen, H. Bai, C. Xu, D. Cang, C. Cao, 1999. Experiment analysis of thermal stress in the cooling wall of blast furnace. J. Univ. of Sci. Technol. Beijing (Chinese Edition), 21(1), 64-69.

  85. Xu, C., S. Wu, D. Cang, Q. Shou, 1998. Experimental study on purification of NOx in automobile exhaust using new type of complex metal-oxide catalyst. Huanjing Kexue (Environmental Science), 19(3), 39-41, 49.

  86. Wu, S., C. Xu, Q. Shou, D. Cang, 1998. Restraining NOx formation during coal combustion in packed bed. J. Univ. of Sci. Technol. Beijing (English Edition), 5(2), 70-74. 

  87. Wu, S., C. Xu, Q. Shou, D. Cang, 1998. NOx formation from several Chinese coals during combustion in packed bed. J. Univ. of Sci. Technol. Beijing (English Edition), 5(2), 65-69.

  88. Xu, C., S. Wu, Q. Shou, D. Cang, 1997. Roles of metallic oxides in the elimination reactions of NO. J. Univ. of Sci. Technol. Beijing (English Edition), 4(4), 15-18.

  89. Kasai, E., C. Xu, S. Wu, D. Cang, 1997. Catalytic performance of several metallic oxides on elimination reactions of NO. Journal of the Society of Materials Engineering for Resources of Japan, 10(1), 62-69.

  90. Wu, S., D. Cang, C. Xu, 1997. Control of NOx pollution in the processes of metallurgical industry. Feijinshu Xuebao (Chinese Non-ferrous Metals Journal), 7(1), 17-20.

Papers in Conference Proceedings

  1. Ahmadi S, Reyhanitash E, Guo C, Yuan Z, Van Rossum G, Rohani S, Xu C.* 2014. “Hydrodeoxygenation of fast pyrolysis oil using Ru/C catalyst-effects of solventS”. Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Energy and Fuels. 248thACS National Meeting & Exposition, August 10-14, 2014, San Francisco.

  2. Nanda M, Yuan Z, Qin W,  Ghaziaskar HS, PoirierM-A, Xu C*. 2014. “catalytic conversion of glycerol and crude glycerol (by-product from bio-diesel industry) to oxygenated fuel additive with A continuous-flow procesS”. Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Energy and Fuels. 248thACS National Meeting & Exposition, August 10-14, 2014, San Francisco.

  3. Khan MSHT, Dutta A*, Xu C*.”Simulation of Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass by Aspenplus”. 2014 ASABE and CSBE/SCGAB Annual International Meeting, Montreal, QC, Canada, July 13 – 16, 2014

  4. Yuan Z., S. Cheng, G. Wang, C. Xu*. “Catalytic De-polymerization, De-oxygenation and De-sulfurization of Kraft Lignin for Fuels, Chemicals and Materials”. 2nd International Congress on Catalysis for Biorefineries, Dalian, China, 2013

  5. Zhang L, C. Xu *, P. Champagne *, W.  Mabee.“Biological and thermo-chemical processes for energy and product recovery from sludges: A review”. Proceedings of 8th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Develop. of Energy Water & Environment System, Dubrovnik, Croatia, Sep 22-27, 2013.

  6. Xu C*, et al. “Innovation in Green Process Engineering undergraduate laboratory course - Integrated laboratories for particulate operations, heat transfer and mass transfer courses”. Proceedings of Canadian Engineering Education Association 4th Annual Conference, Montreal, Canada, June 17-20, 2013.

  7. Cheng, S., Z. Yuan, M. Leitch, M. Anderson, C. Xu*. “Development of bio-based phenolic resins and wood adhesives”. Proceedings of 2012 International Conference on Bio-based Materials Science and Engineering, October 21-23, 2012, Changsha, China, IEEE Catalog Number: CFP1240T-ART, ISBN: 978-1-4673-2383-3: pp. 165-169.

  8. Yuan, Z., S. Cheng, C. Xu *. “Reductive De-polymerization of Lignin for the Preduction of Lignin Based Polyurethane Foamed Materials”. Proceedings of 2012 International Conference on Bio-based Materials Science and Engineering, October 21-23, 2012, Changsha, China, IEEE Catalog Number: CFP1240T-ART, ISBN: 978-1-4673-2383-3: pp. 170-174.

  9. Xu, C*, H. Li, D. Tannous. “Low Temperature Reforming of Ethanol Into Methane in Near- And Super-Critical Water”. Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry 2012, 57 (1): 453-454.

  10. Zhang, L., M. Wishman, P. Champagne, C. Xu*, Screening of supported transition metals as catalysts for supercritical water gasification of glucose for hydrogen production. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, Nov 8–11, 2010.

  11. Xu, C*. “Production of Bio-crude and Bio-phenols from Agricultural Residues or By-products through Direct Liquefaction”. Proceedings of 2009 Int Workshop on Develop. Bioenergy & Conserving the Natural Ecosystem in APEC Member Economies, Rural Development Administration of Korea (ISBN: 978-981-08-5107-1), APEC, Seoul, Korea, September 15-17, 2009: pp. 171-187.

  12. Zhang, L., P. Champagne, C. Xu*, Co-liquefaction of secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and waste newspaper in hot-compressed water for energy recovery. Proceedings of 5th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Develop. of Energy Water & Environment Systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia, Sept 29–Oct 3, 2009.

  13. Xu, C., J. Donald, H. Hashimoto, E. Byambajav, Y. Ohtsuka*, Ammonia decomposition with metal catalysts supported on Canadian peat derived carbon. Proceedings of 8th World Congress of Chemical Engineering (WCCE8), August 23-27, 2009, Montreal.

  14. Shao, Y., C. Xu,*, F. Preto, G. Tourigny, H. Li, J. Wang, J. Zhu, Ash deposition in co-firing biomass/peat and coal in fluidized bed. Proceedings of 8th World Congress of Chemical Engineering (WCCE8), August 23-27, 2009, Montreal.

  15. heng, S., M. Leitch, C. Xu*, Highly efficient liquefaction of woody biomass in hot-compressed water-alcohol medium. Proceedings of 8th World Congress of Chemical Engineering (WCCE8), August 23-27, 2009, Montreal.

  16. Zhang, L., C. Xu*, P. Champagne, Supercritical water gasification of secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge. Proceedings of 8th World Congress of Chemical Engineering (WCCE8), August 23-27, 2009, Montreal.

  17. Hurley, S., H. Li, C. Xu,* Catalytic gasification of biomass in air/CO2 media. In Proc. of Environmental Management and Engineering 2009 (EME 2009), Banff, Alberta, July 6-8, 2009: pp. 39-42.

  18. Badour, C., C. Xu, A. Gilbert, H. Li, Y. Shao, G. Tourigny, F. Preto, Air emissions from co-firing woodwaste/peat and lignite in fluidized bed. In Proc. of Environmental Management and Engineering 2009 (EME 2009), Banff, Alberta, July 6-8, 2009: pp. 26-32.

  19. Shao, Y., C. Xu*, F. Preto, G. Tourigny, C. Badour, L. Li, J. Wang, J. Zhu, Characterization of deposited ash during co-firing of peat and lignite in fluidized bed combustor. In Proc. of Environmental Management and Engineering 2009 (EME 2009), Banff, Alberta, July 6-8, 2009: pp. 56-60.
  20. Shi, W., C. Xu, B. Liao, Pretreatment of peat using hydrogen peroxide. In Proc. of Environmental Management and Engineering 2009 (EME 2009), Banff, Alberta, July 6-8, 2009: pp. 15-19.

  21. Shao, Y., J. Zhu, F. Preto, G. Tourigny, C. Badour, H. Li, J. Wang, C. Xu*. Characterization of deposited ash during co-firing of white pine and lignite in fluidized bed combustor. In Proc. of The 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, Xi’an, Chin, May 18-20, 2009: pp. 1041-1047.
  22. Xu, C.*, J. Donald, 2007. Upgrading of peat to gas/liquid fuels in supercritical water with catalysts. Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, 52(1).

  23. Xu, C., Y. Cheng, J. Zhu, Fine particle fluidization-effects of mechanical/acoustic vibrations. Fluidization XI. Eds. Arena, L., Chirone, R., Miccio, M. and Salatino, P., Engineering Conference International, New York, 2004: pp. 627-634.

  24. Ohtsuka, Y., C. Xu, D. Kong, N. Tsubouchi, 2003. High catalytic performances of low rank coal-chars in ammonia decomposition at high temperatures. Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, 48(1), 304-305.

  25. Ohtsuka, Y., C. Xu, D. Kong, N. Tsubouchi, 2001. Catalytic decomposition of ammonia with iron nanoparticles supported on carbons. Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, 46(1), 151-153.

  26. Tsubouchi, N., C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, 2001. Catalytic role of calcium in the release of volatile nitrogen during coal pyrolysis. Preprints of Symposia - American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, 46(1), 148-150.

  27. Xu, C., D. Kong, N. Tsubouchi, Y. Ohtsuka, High temperature decomposition of ammonia on metal-and/or metal oxide-carbon composites. In Proc. of the 37th Annual Conference of Coal Science, Hokkaido, Japan, 28-29 Sep. 2000: 417-420.

  28. Tsubouchi, N., C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, Catalytic role of Ca in volatile nitrogen release during pyrolysis of coals. In Proc. of the 37th Annual Conference of Coal Science, Hokkaido, Japan, 28-29 Sep. 2000: pp. 161-164.

  29. Xu, C., S. Wu, D. Cang, Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide formation during coke combustion in packed bed with non-combustible particles: Theoretical analysis. In Proc. of ICCS’99 the 10th International Conference on Coal Science, Taiyuan, China, 12-17 Sep. 1999: pp.1557-1560.

  30. Xu, C., S. Wu, D. Cang, Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide formation during coke combustion in packed bed with non-combustible particles: Evaluation, Simulation and Discussion. In Proc. of ICCS’99 the 10th International Conference on Coal Science, Taiyuan, China, 12-17 September, 1999: pp.1573-1576.

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  32. Tsubouchi, N., C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, Release of N2 during pyrolysis of coal loaded with calcium. In Proc. of the 36th Annual Conference of Coal Science, Chiba, Japan, 28-29 Oct. 1999: pp. 127-130.

  33. Tsubouchi, N., C. Xu, Y. Ohtsuka, Behavior of coal-N during high temperature pyrolysis. In Proc. of the 8th Conference of the Japan Institute of Energy, Osaka, Japan, 22-23 July 1999: pp. 75-78.

  34. Cang, D., S. Wu, C. Xu, Abating SO2 and NOx emissions simultaneously during coal combustion. In Proc. of ISES’98 the International Symposium on Global Environment and Iron and Steel Industry, Beijing, China, 14-16 April 1998: pp. 331-335.

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